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英语科技论文写作:标点标记的准确利用要领 精选

已有 8721 次阅读 2018-12-26 16:45 |体系分类:科研条记|科技论文, 英语论文写作, 英语学术论文, 标点标记, 学术英语

英文写作标点标记怎样用?

很多人不清晰在英文写作时标点标记该怎样利用,但在写作学术论文时,遵照标点标记的利用原则黑白常紧张的。举个简朴的例子,要是用逗号分开两个独立不相干的句子会让读者感触狐疑,但若得当的利用分号分开则可使文章越发畅通易懂。因而,当在英文论文或文章中利用标点标记,如逗号comma (,), 冒号colon (:), 分号semicolon (;), 或破折号dash (—)时,请细致以下利用原则:

英文写作中怎样利用逗号(Comma)

在大部门的写作中,逗号是最常被利用的标点标记。但由于逗号的利用场景和利用要求最多,因而很多人会对怎样准确利用感触狐疑,以下是逗号的几点紧张功效,以及得当的利用机遇。

摆列事物或短语时:

I bought bread, cheese, and pickles at the grocery store.

必要分开两个独立的较长从句,并利用毗连词毗连时:

Astronomers have known about the positions of stars for centuries, but they didn’t understand that the earth revolves around the sun.

在先容性短句的背面:

In preparation for the next convention, the representatives studied up on the most important issues.

当必要区分附加阐明部门的句子(parenthetical phrase),或要分开拔出语(interrupter)时:

All doctors, if they care about their patients, are concerned with good office hygiene.

逗号的罕见错误利用案例

Comma splice. 不要在未利用毗连词的环境下,利用逗号分开两个独立的从句

IncorrectThousands of protesters showed up on the streetsthey were shouting and carrying large posters.

CorrectThousands of protesters showed up on the streets; they were shouting and carrying large posters.

Combining lengthy phrases. 在复合句中利用逗号或用逗号来分开短句会形成读者的狐疑,这种环境应利用分号。

IncorrectSome useful subjects are English, which is an international language, math, which is used in all domains of sciences and social sciences, and philosophy, which underpins many other areas of study.

Correct: Some useful subjects are English, which is an international language; math, which is used in all sciences and social sciences; and philosophy, which underpins many other areas of study.

英文写作中怎样利用冒号(Colon)

冒号来条列下文,并报告读者 “Here’s what I mean.”。通常在英文写作中,冒号不常被利用,除非您有很多内容必要枚举,冒号的利用原则较为严谨,但也绝对容易被记着。

先容一个或多个项目:

Humans use five major senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.

分开两个独立从句,第二个从句用来叙说、阐明、改写或延伸第一个从句:

Martha realized that her worst fear was coming true: her son was being sent to war.

(*冒号后用独立的从句表明Martha’s fear)

贸易书信或正式函件扫尾问候语:

To the Central Valley Committee Chairman:

其他冒号利用原则

冒号后的第一个字母不要大写,除非是专著名词, is part of a quote, or is the first in a series of sentences:

错误典范: I have three desires: To eat, sleep, and work.

准确典范 : I have three desires: to eat, sleep, and work.

当引号内包罗多个句子,很多作者会偏向利用冒号而非逗号来引出内容:

In Chapter 3, the author explains his theory: “Dogs have dreams, but they don’t dream as humans do. Their dreams reflect a primal desire for pleasure, whereas humans are preoccupied with the ego and self-image. This is equally true in wakefulness and sleep.”

接在冒号之后的内容纷歧定要是完备的句子,可以是单词或短语:

There is one mantra that can sum up our position towards climate change: urgent action.

罕见冒号错误

分开同等而且无相干的两个从句:

错误典范Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain: nature always held a special meaning for them.

准确典范Sarah and her friends loved spending time on the mountain; nature always held a special meaning for them.

(*若两个从句完全无相干,则应利用句号;若第二个从句和第一个从句有某种水平相干,而且并非用来报告、阐明或改写第一个子句,则利用分号分开)

过分利用冒号:

冒号属于夸大性子的标点标记,要制止过多利用。请将冒号想像为停息标记,用来惹起读者细致“Hey! Pay attention to this. This is important.” 要是路上有过多的停息标记,则无法顺遂并疾速的进步,异样的原理,若文章中包罗过多的冒号,读者也无法顺遂阅读。

冒号重要用来吸引读者细致力并清晰的指出紧张信息,因而,很多作者会利用冒号来导出他们的紧张主张或是用来支持证明。

英文写作中怎样利用分号(Semicolon)

分号利用在分开两个独立的观点(两个独立的从句),但这两个句子是有相干性的。当陈设庞大的观点或短语,而且句中包罗逗号时,得当利用分号来分开。分号拥有逗号的功效,但包罗更多意思,亦有有冒号的功效,但更有弹性。

在句中参加两个或多个观点,而这些观点互为同等时:

The universe has always called to human beings; there could be no more final frontier than space.

参加两个用毗连副词或迁移转变片语毗连的独立从句:

Sam thought David was inviting him to the picnic to enjoy a nice day out; as it turned out, David was planning a surprise birthday party.

陈设很多或一系列差别的项目,项目中包罗逗号时,大概项目绝对长且性子较庞大:

Our family members came all the way from Denver, Colorado; Rochester, Minnesota; and even Paris, France.

利用对等毗连词毗连两个独立从句(若两个从句已利用逗号分开),大概当两个从句较永劫:

My main research objective is to isolate the cause of the disease, as well as to contribute to the existing literature; for this will bring an end to starvation across the continent, create new study designs related to epidemiology, and change the very paradigm of my research field.

应利用分号而非逗号的环境

错误典范The specimens were treated properly, however, they were not stored properly.

准确典范The specimens were treated properly; however, they were not stored properly.

*副词“however”表现的是毗连两个独立的从句; 不要用逗号去毗连两个不包罗并列连词(and, but, or, nor 等等)的独立从句。

错误典范The sun is wonderful: it produces light, which plants need to survive, it gives us warmth, which is useful for most life, and it makes a sad day happier, which is obviously a positive trait!

准确典范The sun is wonderful: it produces light, which plants need to survive; it gives us warmth, which is useful for most life; and it makes a sad day happier, which is obviously a positive trait!

*若只利用逗号,则无法清晰的评释陈设的项目是什么。因而,要善用冒号用来离开包罗逗号的项目。

英文写作中怎样利用破折号(Dashes)

破折号应可被视为用处最多样的标点标记,但是,犹如分号,破折号在许多文章中都并未被得当活用。在很多环境下,破折号可以被看成逗号、括号或是冒号利用,但却可以带来渺小的差别。

利用破折号替换逗号

当写到拔出语时,前后各利用一个破折号可以取代逗号,破折号更有夸大之意,让读者能越发会合在破折号中提到的讯息。

利用逗号导入拔出语:

And so, when the baby was born in June, nearly two months premature, the parents were happy but quite nervous, and they still had to buy all of the baby supplies .

利用破折号导入拔出语:

And so, when the baby was born in June—nearly two months premature—the parents were happy but quite nervous, and they still had to buy all of the baby supplies .

(*破折号夸大”baby was premature”的重点,体现出此内容在句中的紧张性)

利用破折号替换括号

前后各利用一个破折号可取代括号,由于破折号较为非正式,因而在学术英文中较少呈现。但是,利用破折号可较显着的将句子停止,因而也更能夸大内容。

当利用破折号取代括号时,原来接在括号后的标点标记应删除:

利用括号After taking all of his final exams (including seven essays and three multiple choice tests), David just wanted to sleep.

利用破折号After taking all of his final exams—including seven essays and three multiple choice tests—David just wanted to sleep.

*破折号较为不言而喻,因而较能有用地停止句子并吸引读者细致。

若为在句子的末了挑选利用破折号取代括号,则只必要利用一个破折号(而非前后各一)

利用括弧That coffee shop offers a selection of exotic gourmet coffee (or at least that is how they describe it).

利用破折号That coffee shop offers a selection of exotic gourmet coffee—or at least that is how they describe it.

*The dash seems to work especially well when placed at the end of a sentence—it extends the sentence like an addendum .

利用破折号替换冒号

当在夸大句子的结论时,利用破折号取代冒号可以带出纷歧样的意义:破折号可导出附加的内容,且利用方法更为弹性;破折号和冒号相比力为非正式。

冒号: The executives finally decided what they would do with the company: sell it at a loss.

单一破折号The executives finally decided what they would do with the company—sell it at a loss.

冒号: Let’s go where we went last year: Disneyland!

单一破折号Let’s go where we went last year—Disneyland!

*这里利用破折号可以转达出一种等待感(或不行避性),也会让文章带有社论颜色。

在利用标记时,要思量到上下文内容及读者

在撰写文章并选用标点标记时,应思量誊写的内容为何、读者为谁。举例而言,研讨者若想在期刊上颁发论文,应该先相识该期刊大部门的作者怎样利用标点标记。在撰写旧事、杂志等英文文章内容时,也是接纳异样的准绳。

 

Wordvice 资源

APA 款式文献援用典范

怎样写出一份吸引人的绪论

怎样撰写研讨论文的研讨结果

怎样机动更换论文中的动词,让文章更好读?

怎样写研讨论文的择要

论文标题怎样下最符合

论文中常用的迁移转变、毗连词和短语

论文当中应该要多利用自动照旧主动?

研讨论文的改写本领

其他资源

Rules for Comma Use (Grammarly)

Using Commas, Colons, and Semicolons within Sentences (GrammarBook)

Rules for Using Semicolons (University of Wisconsin Writing Center)

How to Use the Em Dash (The Punctuation Guide)

 

 

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